I like to use the term "digital divide" to emphasize the paradigm shift that is industry 4.0. The digital divide is like big great canyon (imagine the Grand Canyon).
Imagine that you are standing on one side (industry 3.0) and need to cross over to the other side (industry 4.0) in order to gain the benefits of the new paradigm. This is quite a feat, not easy and not something that you don't just do - you can't just step over to the other side. It requires a concerted effort, conviction and of course means to take your company over to the other side.
The problem here is that people have differing views of this digital divide (canyon) is. Some of course don't believe there is one, some think its a little crevasse they can step over, and then every variation of size from there on. Regardless of what you believe, the closer you get to the rim of the digital divide the more its true size becomes apparent. In other words its by trying to transform you learn how much of a paradigm shift Industry 4.0 is, however if you keep circling on the one side of the divide you will never know what is on the other side. I say that because there is much confusion and misguidance around what is and is not digital technologies. Many struggle to differentiate between the set of monolithic application such as MES, WMS, FMS, etc. that are foundationally the realization of the CIM concept, with the new agile app based platforms on cloud and edge architectures which are part of the new paradigm. It doesn't help that many of the concepts that we consider a paradigm shift and transformational have in fact existed for a while. The most common is AI, that has arguably been around for over 60 years and is now becoming pervasive, yes ChatGPT again... but in reality in many gadgets and things. Another lesser known are multi-agent systems which is really at the core of IIoT and collaborative manufacturing equipment, i.e. collaborative robots.
So what does the other side of the digital divide look like - what does a smart factory look like? It is a digitally transformed facility and operation that is reaping the benefits of increased productivity. Not just a step increase but in fact a factory that experiences an order of magnitude productivity gain! It is this productivity gain that comes with crossing the digital divide. It is what we need to aim and think about, when talking digital transformation. It must be the vision and the clear long-term goal and with a clear goal it is easier to prioritize which technology to try first and where or what to digitally transform first, in other words define a strategy that will take you across the canyon.
Although it may not be easy to paint a precise picture of what the future smart factory should look yet, it is possible to draw a picture of how such a smart factory behaves and operates, and what productivity increases to expect. Already in the 90s researchers were able to draw a picture of smart factories. This view can be reinforced with results from companies that have embraced the digital reality and relevant technological advances are already enjoying higher levels of productivity. What characterizes these companies is that they embraced a culture of change where adoption of new digital technologies is weaved into the continuous improvement processes. They have a "hacker" culture where digital native employees do not settle for aging monolithic systems, paper based processes, and antiquated methods.
This all means that we do need to seriously start changing cultures and adopting true digital technologies even if there not fully matured - because digital transformation is here! Call it what you want, Industry 4.0, Pharma 4.0 or Smart Manufacturing, its here, the future is now. Don't settle with rebranding your existing technologies, imagine if you went back to the future, would you still do things the same way? Transforming companies is may passion and it tickles me to see this unfold in industry - we dreamed about in the late 1990's!.
So my advice is as follows:
Change is hard and takes time, understanding a new paradigm comes from adoption and experiencing tangible results - remember these results are not single digit improvement, the need to be "order of magnitude. Define a strategy that takes into account that interesting and valuable technological advances are still to come, embrace change and weave it into your strategy and culture. Get close to the rim of the canyon and get a good view of the other side!